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study id86257 covid19 vaccination status quo

study id86257 covid19 vaccination status quo
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COVID-19 VACCINATION:

STATUS QUO
A STATISTA DOSSIERPLUS ON THE COVID-19 VACCINES AND THE
ONGOING VACCINATION CAMPAIGNS. LAST UPDATE:

APRIL 29, 2021

The COVID-19 pandemic: one year later

ƒTimeline of the pandemic

ƒReduced mobility

ƒThe COVID-19 vaccines

ƒSARS-CoV-2 mutations

Table of contents

Vaccination strategies

ƒCOVID-YDFFLQHVODQGVFDSH

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ƒAcceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine

The vaccination campaign: status

quo

ƒUnited States

ƒLargest EU member states (Germany,

France, Italy)

ƒUnited Kingdom

Conclusion and outlook04
Started in late 2020, the vaccination campaigns are feeding the
hope for the pandemic to lose momentum in 2021
The spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, responsible for the COVID-19
GLVHDVHKDVSXVKHGPRVWRIWKHZRUOGVFRXQWULHVLQWRSURORQJHGFULVLV
mode. One year after the first cases of COVID-19 were recorded in
China, the pandemic totaled, as of April 2021, 149.6 million infections
and 3.2 million casualties worldwide in official records. Similar tothe
influenza virus, the spread of SARS-CoV-2 has been occurring in waves.
During phases of peak contagion, national health systems were put
under enormous sometimes even unbearable pressure. This
compelled the national governments to find strategies to reduce the
spread of the virus.
Since the beginning of the pandemic, the curtailment of SARS-CoV-2 has
been attainable only through mobility-reducing measures (lockdowns),
social distancing, and increased hygiene standards (e.g., wide usage of
face masks). Vaccines are now offering hope to deescalate the
pandemic without these strict measures.As early as summer 2020,
some potential vaccines cleared the rigid testing and licensure
processes of national and international health authorities, a step which
offered the concrete possibility of reaching a generalized immunity
against COVID-19 and bringing the pandemic to an end. Whereas the
development of multiple safe, effective, and protocol-compliant
vaccines within one year is already an unprecedented achievement in
the history of vaccines, producing, distributing, and administering them
on a global scale also presents complex challenges. Moreover, eleven
on the 12 vaccines currently in use and the majority of those in the
latest stage of testing require two injections to be fully effective, thus
doubling the number of needed resources.
As of April 2021, the mass vaccination campaigns have started in most
partsof the world, targeting to attain herd immunity against COVID-19
perhaps within 2021. In terms of sheer numbers, this translates to
administering a vaccine twice per patient in a little more than 365 days
to, at least, 70 percent of the population. Focusing on the United States
and large European countries (Germany, United Kingdom, France, and
Italy), Statista is tracking the number of COVID-19 vaccines issued per
day and comparing these figures with the average numbers needed for
reaching herd immunity by the 31st of December 2021. As of April 2021,
all the abovementioned countries appear to have reached the critical
number of average daily vaccinations in order to achieve herd immunity
against SARS-CoV-2 by the end of 2021.

Executive summary

The COVID-19 pandemic: one year

later

ƒTimeline of the pandemic

ƒReduced mobility

ƒThe COVID-19 vaccines

ƒSARS-CoV-2 mutations

One year after SARS-CoV-2 was first identified in Hubei, China, its
pandemic spread has triggered a global race for the vaccine

Overview
First detected in the Chinese province of Hubei between the end of 2019 and
January 2020, the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus, responsible for the COVID-19
disease, rapidly reached a pandemic spread. From China's cancellation of the
events related to the Lunar New Year, planned for the last weekend of January
2020, to the WHO statement officially declaring the spread of the SARS-CoV-2
pandemic, less than 50 days passed.The spread of the virus, already in the so-
called first wave of January-May 2020, was confirmed to be a serious threat for
PRVWRIWKHZRUOGVSRSXODWLRQDQGIRUDOOWKHQDWLRQDOKHDOWKV\VWHPV
including those of the most advanced countries.
7KHFRXQWULHVUHVSRQVHWRWKHSDQGHPLFIROORZHGWZRDSSURDFKHV2QHZDV
that the population was asked (or, in some countries, ordered) to reduce time
VSHQWRXWVLGHDQGDYRLGFRQWDFWZLWKRWKHUSHRSOHWRREVWUXFWWKHYLUXV
spread. The second was that the pharmaceutical industry andresearch
facilities began research into developing more effective medicine and, most
importantly, a vaccine. Despite not having any precedent in the modern history
of medicine, one year later, over 300 candidate vaccines against SARS-CoV-2
have been submitted to the various health authorities for approval. Of these,
12 were officially approved and are currently being administered to a wide

VKDUHRIWKHZRUOGVSRSXODWLRQ
Note(s): *intended as vaccines approved by at least one national health authority in the world and widely administered to the population (outside a testing scheme)
Source(s): John Hopkins University, WHO, Statista

The pandemic in numbers

(as of xx.02.2020)

Certified infections worldwide

Certified casualties worldwide

Vaccines undergoing testing and

approval process

Vaccines currently in use*
The pandemic in number as of April 29, 2021

149.6 million

3.2 million

> 300
COVID-19 has infected over 149.6 million people and caused 3.2
million deaths so far; now it's gaining momentum
COVID-19 cumulative infections (left axis) and casualties (right axis), as of April 29, 2021
Source(s): ABC news,Johns Hopkins University, Statista

100

120

140

160

January 2020February 2020
March 2020April 2020May 2020June 2020July 2020

August 2020

September 2020

October 2020

November 2020December 2020

January 2021February 2021

March 2021April 2021

COVID
-19 reported cumulative casualties worldwide,

in millions

COVID
-19 reported cumulative infections worldwide,

in millions
Cumulative infectionsCumulative casualties
January 25, 2020:

China cancelsLunar

New Year celebrations
February 5, 2020:

Diamond Princess

cruise ship

quarantined
March 11, 2020:

WHO declares the

spread of SARS-CoV-2

pandemic
May 27, 2020:

100,000 COVID-19
victims in the U.S.
August 11, 2020:

Sputnik V vaccine

approved in Russia
December 27, 2020:

Vaccine day in the

European Union
April 2, 2021:

100 million people

received at least one

dose of COVID-19

vaccine in the United

States

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

January

February

March

April
4681012141618202224262830323436384042444648505213579111315
The spread of SARS-CoV-2 took place in waves;the highest
numbers wererecorded in December 2020 and January 2021
COVID-19 daily cases, selected countries and aggregated by calendar week
Source(s): Johns Hopkins University, Statista

200,000

400,000

600,000

800,000

1,000,000

1,200,000

1,400,000

1,600,000

1,800,000

2,000,000
4681012141618202224262830323436384042444648505213579111315
United StatesGermanyUnited KingdomFranceItaly2020

COVID

-19 new confirmed cases, weekly2021

The widening spread of SARS-CoV-2 in

March 2020, first in Europe and in the
United States shortly afterwards, made it
necessary for these countries to introduce
measures to reduce the mobility of their
citizens.
The strategy of national lockdowns included

the temporary closures of public spaces
(schools, universities) and recreational

spaces (restaurants, cinemas, theaters,
sports facilities) and required employers to

facilitate working from home for those
employees that could do so.
$VDUHVXOWSHRSOHVWLPHVSHQWDWKRPH
increased both within March and May 2020
(first wave), and again from October 2020

onward (second wave). The time spent in
the workplace was inversely proportional,
declining the most during the peaks of the
two waves.
The most common solution to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2 was
to ask people to reduce their mobility and stay home
Note(s): *Defined as the days between January 3, 2020 and February 6, 2020.
Source(s): Google mobility trends, our world in data
Google mobility trends, selected countries

-80%

-60%

-40%

-20%

20%

40%

60%

80%
89101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525312345678910111213141516
United StatesGermanyUnited KingdomFranceItaly

Residential

Workplace
Mar.Apr.MayJun.Jul.Aug.Sep.Oct.Nov.Dec.Jan. 2021

Percentage change compared to pre

-pandemic period*, weekly
Feb.Mar.Apr.MayJun.Jul.Aug.Sep.Oct.Nov.Dec.Jan. 2021Feb.Mar.Apr.
Development and licensure of a newly developed vaccine, United States regulations
Developing vaccines for COVID-19 became pivotal, yet adhering to
official protocols to ensure safety and efficacy is crucial

Exploratory

stage

Pre-clinical

stage

IND

application

Phase I trials

Phase II

trials

Phase III

trials

Approval

and

licensure

Post-

licensure

monitoring

Basic

laboratory
research.

Human

cellculture

and/or animal
testing.

Application to the

U.S. Food and

Drug
Administration.

Tests on a small group of adults
(20 to 80 subjects).

Focus on safety and extent of
immune response.

Tests on larger samples of
individuals, including risk groups.

Focus on immunogenicity,

proposed dose, and method of
delivery.

Larger scale tests,

involving 1,000 to

>10,000
individuals.

Submission of the

Biologics License

Application to the

U.S. Food and Drug
Administration.

Post-distribution
monitoring.

Focus on adverse
events.
Source(s): historyofvaccines.org, The New York Times

Vaccines currently in use
Source(s): London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, WHO
COVID-19 vaccines in the latest stage of testing and in use, as of April 13, 2021
Within the year 2020, 304 candidate COVID-19 vaccines have been
developed; 12 of them are already in use
ManufacturerCountry of originCountries where the vaccine is used
Pfizer/BioNTechU.S./GermanyWHO countries
AstraZeneca/OxfordUKUK, EU, India, Argentina, Dominican Republic, El

Salvador, Mexico, Morocco
GamelayaResearch Inst.
(Sputnik V)RussiaRussia, Belarus, Argentina, Serbia, Paraguay,

Palestine
ModernaU.S.U.S., Canada, EU, Israel, UK, Switzerland

Anhui ZhifeiChinaChina
SinopharmChinaChina, UAE , Bahrain, Egypt, Hungary
SinovacChinaChina, Azerbaijan, Brazil, Chile, and Colombia

CanSino ChinaChina, Mexico, Pakistan

Wuhan/SinopharmChinaChina, UAE

Vector institute

(EpiVacCorona)RussiaRussia

BharatIndiaIndia (emergency use)
Johnson & JohnsonU.S.U.S., EU, Bahrain, South Africa

Phase III testingBef. Phase III

282vaccines

11 vaccines

Vaccines currently in use

12 vaccines


study id86257 covid19 vaccination status quo

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